- The Fire extinguisher is very necessary for safety; please ensure that it is available at your house, shop and car.
- Exceeding the normal electric load is very dangerous.
- Please ensure safety of gas pipes at your house to prevent accidents.
- Using elevators properly guarantees you safety and prevents damages.
- Do not allow children to use elevators by their own.
- You must keep flame sources away from electricity to prevent accidents.
- Cigarette butts cause dangerous accidents, please do not throw them anywhere.
- Make sure you turn off all electrical and gas appliances before leaving your house.
- Please turn off you car engine at gas stations
- In case of fire occurrence, please dial (998.)
Safety of Installations:
Safety measures must be considered while constructing any building; precautions must be taken to ensure safety of this building, and safety means such as alarms, fire fighting equipment and emergency exits must be installed as follows:
Escape means in buildings in case of fire:
Exits include all corridors, doors and stairs that lead to the outside. Exits are considered escape means in case of fire. The following measures must be considered for exits:
- Width of exit units.
- Evacuation time.
- Individuals flow from the exit.
- Distance required to reach the exit.
First: Width of exit units:
Distance of exit units must be enough for three individuals to pass at the same time.
Second: Evacuation time:
Evacuation time varies according to type of building, if the building is made of flammable material, evacuation time must be quick:
- Evacuation time must be three minutes for buildings that are totally made of non-flammable material.
Evacuation time must be two and a half minutes for buildings that are partially made of flammable material.
Third: Individuals flow from the exit:
This indicates the number of individuals flowing from exits within one minute, which is estimated by forty individuals.
Fourth: Distance required to reach the exit:
This indicates the maximum distance to reach a safe area, this distance depends on type of buildings as follows:
- The distance must be less than 100 feet for Buildings that are totally made of fire resistant material.
- The distance must be less than 60 feet for buildings that are partially made of fire resistance material.
- The distance must be less than 40 feet for buildings that are totally made of flammable material.
Stairways are primary escape routes, which can be used by occupants of the top floors of a building; therefore, they must be designed in accordance with safety regulations and standards, and must be fitted with a variety of fire protection measures to prevent smoke spread and fire propagation in the event of fire.
Types of stairways:
First: Internal stairways:
They are built inside a building to connect floors to each other with corridors and openings. The internal stairways must be constructed with fire resistant materials to protect them from fire; the ceiling lining materials must be non-combustible.
Firewalls constructed using long-term resistant material must enclose the stairways. The doorways and corridors leading to the stairways must be equipped with smoke proof doors to prevent the passage of smoke to the stairways, which can prevent the occupants from using them in the event of an emergency.
When using stairways in the event of an emergency, the following points must be considered:
Second: External stairways:
Where the internal stairways are not sufficient for the evacuation of occupants in the event of an emergency, open stairways can be installed outside the building.
Following is the design and construction requirements of external stairways:
- The stairways must be installed at appropriate locations and distance between the exit and the outside of the building must be considered.
- They must be constructed using fire-resistant materials, which are not affected by changes in climate or temperatures.
- The installation must be at least two meters away from windows and building openings from which smoke and flames are likely to spread.
- Openings leading to stairways must have smoke and fire proof doors.
- The lighting system in the exterior stairways must allow nighttime visibility.
The measurements related to treads, landings and the height of the handrail of exterior stairways must be the same as internal stairways.